By: Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
December 19, 2005
expressed here are author’s own and not of this website. Full disclaimer
is at the bottom.
Hindu international conspiracy which has hijacked the Harvard University’s
international scandal is unraveled in the following sections:
Board of Education threatened with international scandal
The roots of Hindu
mess with words
American Journal of
Human Genetics (December 2005)
presents genetic study findings (September 2005)
cited in Curriculum Commission hearings (December 2005)
Genetic studies by
Global conspiracy against
Michael Witzel and his 46 co-signatories (November 2005)
BBC brands Aryan
Invasion/Migration/Influx/Trickle-in Theory as a racist ploy and a
dangerous theory (June 2005)
What started as a threatened international scandal from Harvard
University, has turned into a global Hindu conspiracy attempting to show
that Hindu civilization was nurtured and developed by the Hindu. This
conspiracy was hatched to reject aryan supremacy postulated through Aryan
Invasion/Migration/Influx/Trickle-in Theory (AIT). As of the writing of
this report (20 December 2005), it is learnt from reliable sources that
international press is keen on unraveling this conspiracy and is close on
the heels of a Harvard University Professor.
Michael Witzel of
has been leading the charge of a valiant effort launched by Harvard
University to teach Hindu children a lesson.
Early on, Witzel used the
letterhead (in the letter written on
November 8, 2005)
to impress upon the California State Board of Education the weight of the
University behind the effort. In a complementary effort on an email list
called Indo-Eurasian_Research, Witzel underscored the international
scandal by demonstrating that the most sacred of the Hindu mantras or
sacred chants was a goat’s call:
“Many short mantras
(the later biija mantras) like oM have humble origins the Veda. Him (hiM)
is used in the Veda to call your goat .. and your wife.”
Vide message number
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Indo-Eurasian_research/ An account of
the California Textbook mess is provided by Kalavai Venkat (Dec.
6, 2005) in the article,
Early hints of the Hindu conspiracy are found at the newsreports of Hindu
Press International (December 4, 2005)
CA Commission Accepts Most Hindu Changes to Textbook
Board of Education threatened with international scandal
Sensing a budding conspiracy, the strategist Witzel quickly co-opted his
department Chair, Kuijp, (in an email circulated by Witzel November 26,
2005 and reported by Bahujan yahoogroup). Thus Witzel successfully
prepared the groundwork for a full-blown international scandal launched
under the aegis of Harvard University. He took care to co-opt 46
‘internationally known researchers’ as co-signatories (later expanded by
the addition of 3 more plus Kuijp who were kept in the information loop).
The Bahujan group’s involvement was made possible by Lars Martin Fosse’s
letter to John Dayal (of Dalit fame) and Amarjit Singh (of Khalistan
The November 8 letter which threatened an international scandal is at
subsequent mail exchanges were documented vide message number 8893 at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Bahujan/message/8893 Other quotable
quotes: “[John Dayal] opens his mouth and wields his pen only to spew
venom on the Hindu community.” Benjamin, P.N.: When Intolerance
Begets Loss Of Reason. Available at
http://www.hvk.org/articles/0905/43.html According to the South Asia
Terrorism Portal [SATP], Amarjit Singh is closely associated with the
banned terror organization International Sikh Youth Federation [ISYF].
California State Board of Education was duly warned by Witzel of an
emerging international scandal while participating as a three-man Content
Review Panel (CRP) together with Wolpert of University of California, Los
Angeles and Heitzman of University of California,
See the credentials of the CRP at
3. The roots of Hindu
It now turns out that the Hindu parents of Hindu children studying in US
schools, have co-opted many universities and a large media moghul, the
BBC, as part of an international conspiracy to counter an effective
scandal so carefully engineered early in November 2005 and continued in
The conspiracy becomes complicated because of the technical DNA/Genetic
terms used. The conspiracy simply tries to demonstrate using scientific
jargon that people of India were indigenous to India, that there were no
groups of people called Aryans and that the ‘Aryans’ (read: Indo-Europeans
or ancestors of present-day Europe) never entered from elsewhere into
India. The mt DNA (mother’s DNA markers) and Y-chromosome markers clearly
demonstrate that the people of Bharat that is
are of indigenous, local origin from within
thus negating the Aryan Invasion/Migration/Influx/Trickle-in Theory (AIT).
Unwittingly, even the church in England has become a part of this
conspiracy. The Chapel of Oxford College took the lead, and presented
William Jones wearing a skull-cap on a marble panel, showing Jones to be a
missionary, though he had earlier been lauded as a Sanskrit-lover, as the
Father of Indo-European Linguistics attesting to the supremacy of
Europeans and their burden to civilize many colonies including the Indian
colony. Hindus were shown on the marble panel cowering at the feet of
William Jones. See photo at
Complementing this cleverly contrived humiliation of the Hindu, the
conspiracy gathered momentum in October 2005 when the BBC produced a
report that Aryan Invasion/Migration/Influx/Trickle-in Theory was a racist
ploy to subjugate India as a British Aryan colony.
mess with words
In the wake of the review of a mere set of textbooks used in California
state, the Hindu conspirators created a mess asking for about 200 words to
be changed in the textbooks.
was quick to allege religious-political motivations behind this request
and broadly suggested that there was no need for any editorial changes. In
one emphatic reference, the Content Review Panel (CRP composed of Witzel,
Wolpert and Heitzman) thundered that the children in
schools shouldn’t really care if Ramayana – an epic in Hindu tradition --
was earlier than Mahabharata, another epic in Hindu tradition. The CRP
also said that it was essential to use the recently-coined political word,
dalit, apart from emphasizing the Aryan Migration Theory to show that
Aryans influxed into India to civilize the tribes.
Hindu groups tried to present evidence that the 'caste system' was a
British colonial creation with the start of the 1871 census. (Caste itself
is not a bharatiya word but a Portuguese word, casta, meaning 'race'). The
words used in Hindu tradition to discuss social groups are
and jaati. Jaati refers to birth, to species, to genus as seen from
innumerable references in texts in the veda-bauddha-jaina continuum of
Hindu tradition. Jaati in Telug means 'nation'.
is derived from dhaatu, root vr. 'to choose'; that is choice of skills and
professions based on one's proclivities and preferences for social
These recommendations of CRP were viewed by the Hindu parents as attempts
at continued humiliation of Hindu children in the classrooms as people
without a proud heritage but had to be civilized about 4,000 years ago,
consistent with the date of creation of the universe (in 4004 BC)
according to the Biblical tradition.
To the dismay of the
scandal panel, new co-conspirators have now emerged. One is Indian
Statistical Institute, and the other is Stanford University. These two
institutions have been further complemented by a few petitioners referring
to genetic/DNA studies pointing to the indigenous origins and evolution of
This article documents the blow-by-blow account of this Hindu conspiracy.
5. American Journal of
Human Genetics (December 2005)
The URL is:
The American Journal of Human Genetics, Posted: Dec. 16, 2005 This finding
complements the earlier genetic studies summarised by Dr. Chandrakant
Panse (16 Sept.
Polarity and Temporality of
High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions
in India Identify Both Indigenous
and Exogenous Expansions and
Reveal Minor Genetic Influence
of Central Asian Pastoralists by Sanghamitra Sengupta,1
Lev A. Zhivotovsky,2 Roy King,3 S. Q. Mehdi,4
Christopher A. Edmonds, 3 Cheryl-Emiliane T. Chow,3
Alice A. Lin,3 Mitashree Mitra,5 Samir K. Sil,6
A. Ramesh,7 M. V. Usha Rani, 8 Chitra M. Thakur,9
L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza,3 Partha P. Majumder,1
and Peter A. Underhill3
1 Human Genetics Unit, Indian
Statistical Institute, Kolkata,
India; 2N. I. Vavilov
Institute of General Genetics, Russian
Academy of Sciences, Moscow; 3Department
of Genetics, Stanford University,
Stanford; 4Biomedical and Genetic
Engineering Division, Dr. A.
Q. Khan Research Laboratories,
Islamabad; 5School of Studies
in Anthropology, Pandit Ravishankar
Shukla University, Raipur, India; 6University
of Tripura, Tripura, India; 7Department
of Genetics, University of
Madras, Chennai, India; 8Department
of Environmental Sciences,
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India;
and 9B. J.
Children, Mumbai, India
Received July 26, 2005; accepted for publication November 3, 2005;
electronically published December 16, 2005.Although
considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language
in South Asia is attributable to the arrival
of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data
(mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically
conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of
tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to
resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69
informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10
microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically,
socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South
Asia. We found that the influence of Central
Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The
ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of
Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which
attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore,
our data do not support models that invoke a
pronounced recent genetic input from
explain the observed genetic variation in
R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity
that is inconsistent with a recent single history.
Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1
haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent
histories of the Indus
and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also
more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers
than a source with proximity to the Indus and
with significant genetic input resulting from demic
diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore
the importance of marker ascertainment for
distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes
when attributing ancestral composition and
temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our
reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era not Indo-
Europeanexpansions have shaped the distinctive South
Asian Y-chromosome landscape.
6. Human Empowerment
Conference, Houston, presents genetic study findings (September 2005)
Paper presented by Dr. Chandrakant Panse at the Human Empowerment
Conference (HEC), Houston, Texas, USA; Sept 16 – 18, 2005:
DNA, GENETICS & POPULATION DYNAMICS: DEBUNKING THE ARYAN INVASION
Summary: The so-called Aryan invasion, an idea designed to divide the
Hindus of Northern and Southern Bharat, was never supported by any
concrete evidence and yet was elevated to the stature of a theory. It has
been pushed in secondary school textbooks as a dogma. Science now
conclusively rejects any notion of any Aryan invasion of the Indian
Study of changes (mutations, insertions) in chromosomal DNA is very
difficult due to its magnitude. In humans, the egg contains 22 chromosomes
plus the X sex chromosome, and the sperm has similar 22 plus either the X
or the Y sex chromosome. An XX combination in the embryo ensues a female,
and an XY a male. There are some 3 billion DNA base pairs in the 46
chromosomes in a human cell. Studying changes as markers in only the Y
chromosome can be simpler, but traces only the male ancestry.
Cells contain mitochondria, structures where oxygen is utilized. A
mitochondrion has its own DNA, only 16,569 base pairs long, and entirely
independent of the chromosomal DNA. Following mutations in the mtDNA is
thus significantly easier, but traces only female ancestry as the
mitochondria are descendants of the egg, with no contribution from the
Attempts at linking of populations through insertions of repeat sequences
are underway (1), but call for abundant caution because sampling errors,
numbers of markers employed, choices of markers, statistical models
selected for analysis, etc., influence the results of such studies (2).
More importantly, polymorphism (different alleles, or slightly different
forms of the same gene) subjected to local positive selection can result
in convergent evolution, the reverse also holds true, and these can lead
to abnormal conclusions regarding histories of populations (2). Attempts
to demonstrate similarities amongst Asian and European gene pools not only
suffer from such drawbacks in spite of vigorous statistical analysis, but
also can be explained by multiple mechanisms (3).
II. North & South Bharatiyas Share mtDNA, Which Is Distinct From That
Extensive sequencing and statistical analysis of a part of mtDNA which has
sustained mutations (the mitochondrial hypervariable region I, HVR I),
from reasonable sample sizes, has shown that certain sequences dominant in
Europe are uncommon in India, and when found, are almost equally divided
amongst the North and South Indians. Conversely, there are sequences
common to both the North and South Indians which are uncommon in Europe
(4). These data have been used to estimate the time of diversion of the
peoples of Europe and Asia in the Pleistocenic era (4), emphasizing that
these are phylogenically different peoples (5).
III. North & South Bharatiyas Share Tissue Antigens, Distinct From
Those of Europeans
All diploid human cells express a set of proteins on their surfaces, HLA-A,
B and C, which can be unique to an individual. They are coded for in the
major histocompatibility complex of genes (MHC class I) on chromosome 6.
These are the proteins which are recognized as non-self by the immune
system in transplant rejection, and are variously called transplant
antigens, phynotypic markers, cell-surface markers, etc. All of these
proteins in all persons have identical structures and functions, yet can
be distinguished from others. Not all 6 class I antigens (3 each from
paternal and maternal copies of chromosomes 6) may be unique to an
individual; some are identical or similar. MHC class II proteins (DP, DQ,
DR) are expressed by some immune system cells only, but may be even more
Analysis of the DNA sequences coding for the different forms of these
proteins (alleles) demonstrate that while populations which are closely
related, geographically or through known migrations, show similarities in
their class I and II MHC antigens, the Asians and the Europeans are
distinct, separate but equal, people (6).
Conclusion: The stark lack of similarities in the gene pools of the
Indian subcontinent and
vividly evident in the mtDNA and the MHC complex, destroys any ' Aryan
invasion' notions, and confirms the genetic uniformity of peoples of the
Chandrakant Pansé, Professor of Biotechnology
I gratefully acknowledge research support from my dharmapatnee Dr. Ujwala
Pansé, professor of biochemistry, and our sukanya Kumaree Anjali Pansé.
1. Callinana PA, Hedgesa DJ, Salema A-H, Xinga J, Walkera JA, Garbera RK,
Watkinsc WS, Bamshad MJ, et al. Comprehensive analysis of Alu-associated
diversity on the human sex chromosomes. Gene 317, 103-110 (2003).
2. Bamshad M, Wooding S,
BA, Stephens JC. Deconstructing the Relationship Between Genetics and
Race. Nature Rev. Gen. 5, 598-609 (2004).
3. Watkins WS, Rogers AR, Ostler CT, Wooding S, Bamshad MJ, Brassington
AE, Carroll ML, Nguyen SV, Walker JA, Ravi Prasad BV, et al. Genetic
Variation Among World Populations: Inferences From 100 Alu Insertion
Polymorphisms. Genome Res. 13, 1607-1618 (2003).
4. Kivisild T, Bamshad MJ, Kaldma K, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Reidla M,
Laos S, Parik J, Watkins WS, Dixon ME, Papiha SS, Mastana SS, Mir MR,
Ferak V, Villems R. Deep common ancestry of indian and western-Eurasian
mitochondrial DNA lineages. Current Biol. 9, 1331-4 (1999).
5. Disotell TR. Human evolution: the southern route to Asia. Curr. Biol.
9, R925-8 (1999).
6. Arnaiz-Villena A, Karin M, Bendikuze N, Gomez-Casado E, Moscoso J,
Silvera C, Oguz FS, Diler AS, de Pacho A, Allende L, Guillen J, Laso JM.
HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: relatedness to
Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans. Tissue Antigens 57, 308-317
(a plea: please do not ever refer to the aryan invasion propaganda as a
7. Genetic evidence
cited in Curriculum Commission hearings (December 2005)
During the deliberations (December 2005) of Curriculum Commission of
California Department of Education of a sixth grade textbook containing
references to 'Aryan Invasion/Migraiton/Influx/Trickle-in Theories',
"Commissioner Metzenberg, a biologist, objected on scientific grounds. He
said, "I've read the DNA research and there was no Aryan migration. I
believe the hard evidence of DNA more than I believe historians."
http://www.Hinduismtoday.com/hpi/2005/12/4.shtml#1 See a
paper presented by Arvind Kumar at the Curriculum Commission hearing:
Efforts were also made to present the need for instilling a sense of pride
in Hindu children on their Hindu heritage. See
/columns/OL_051204.htm Scholarship of Equine
Posteriors by Narayanan Komerath, Dec. 4, 2005
Dr. Metzenberg read he read to the committee, from a 1999 paper by
Kivisild, et al. (Current Biology, vol 9 pp.1331-1334):
"A commonly held hypothesis, albeit not the only one, suggests a massive
Indo-Aryan invasion to India some 4,000 years ago . Recent limited
analysis of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Indian
populations has been interpreted as supporting this concept [2 and 3].
Here, this interpretation is questioned. We found an extensive deep late
Pleistocene genetic link between contemporary Europeans and Indians,
provided by the mtDNA haplogroup U, which encompasses roughly a fifth of
mtDNA lineages of both populations.Our estimate for this split is close to
the suggested time for the peopling of Asia and the first expansion of
anatomically modern humans in Eurasia [4, 5, 6, 7 and 8] and likely
pre-dates their spread to Europe. Only a small fraction of the
mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively
recent admixture...Thus, we have shown that the overwhelming majority of
the so-called western-Eurasian-specific mtDNA lineages in Indian
populations, estimated here to be carried by more than a hundred million
contemporary Indians, belong in fact to an Indian-specific variety of
haplogroup U of a late Pleistocene origin. The latter exhibits a direct
common phylogenetic origin with its sister groups found in western Eurasia
(Figure 1), but it should not be interpreted in terms of a recent
admixture of western Caucasoids with Indians caused by a putative
Indo-Aryan invasion 3,000
years BP. From the deep time depth of the split between the predominant
Indian and European haplogroup U varieties, it could be speculated that
haplogroup U arose in neither of the two regions. This split could have
already happened in Africa, for example, in Ethiopia, where haplogroup U
was recently described ."
The full paper of Kivisild et al (1999) is available at
Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasianmitochondrial DNA
lineages by T. Kivisild*, M.J. Bamshad† , K. Kaldma*, M. Metspalu*, E.
Metspalu*,M. Reidla*, S. Laos*, J. Parik*, W.S. Watkins†, M.E. Dixon† ,
S.S. Papiha‡,S.S. Mastana§, M.R. Mir¶ , V. Ferak¥ and R. Villems* (Current
Biology, 199, 9:1331-1334).
See also: Deka, R. Papiha, SS Kluwer, eds., 1999, Genomic Diversity,
Academic/Plenum Publishers, Toomas Kivisild et al, The place of the Indian
mtDNA variants in the Global Network of Maternal lineages and the peopling
of the old world, pp.133-152.
8. Genetic studies by
Early Humans Settled
Before Europe, Study Suggests
Brian Vastag for
National Geographic News
November 14, 2005
Modern humans migrated out of
and into India
much earlier than once believed, driving older hominids in present-day
India to extinction and creating some of the earliest art and
architecture, a new study suggests.
The research places modern humans in India tens of thousands of years
before their arrival in
researchers Michael Petraglia and Hannah James developed the new theory
after analyzing decades' worth of existing fieldwork in India. They
outline their research in the journal Current Anthropology.
"He's putting all the pieces together, which no one has done before,"
Sheela Athreya, an anthropologist at Texas A&M University, said of
Modern humans arrived in
around 40,000 years ago, leaving behind cave paintings, jewelry, and
evidence that they drove the Neandertals to extinction.
Petraglia and James argue that similar events took place in India when
modern humans arrived there about 70,000 years ago.
The Indian subcontinent was once home to Homo heidelbergensis, a
hominid species that left Africa about 800,000 years ago, Petraglia
"I realized that, my god, modern humans might have wiped out Homo
heidelbergensis in India," he said. "Modern humans may have been
responsible for wiping out all sorts of ancestors around the world."
"Our model of
talking about that entire wave of dispersal," he added. "[T]hat's a huge
implication for paleoanthropology and human evolution."
A New Model
Petraglia and James reached their conclusions by pulling together fossils,
artifacts, and genetic data.
The evidence points to an early human migration through the Middle East
and into India, arriving in Australia by 45,000 to 60,000 years ago, they
The new theory posits that as much as 70,000 years ago, a group of these
modern humans migrated east, arriving in India with technology comparable
to that developed by Homo heidelbergensis.
"The tools were not so different," Petraglia says. "The technology that
the moderns had wasn't of a great advantage over what [Homo
heidelbergensis] were using."
But modern humans outcompeted the natives, slowly but inexorably driving
them to extinction, Petraglia says. "It's just like the story in Western
Europe, where [modern humans] drove Neandertals to extinction," he says.
The modern humans who colonized India may also have been responsible for
the disappearance of the so-called Hobbits, whose fossilized bones were
discovered recently on the Indonesian island of Flores. ..
Petraglia and James's report presents evidence of creativity and culture
in India starting about 45,000 years ago. Sophisticated stone blades
arrive first, along with rudimentary stone architecture.
Beads, red ochre paint, ostrich shell jewelry, and perhaps even shrines to
long-lost gods—the hallmarks of an early symbolic culture—appear by 28,500
years ago. This slow change is in contrast to what many scientists believe
played out in Europe. Modern humans blew through the continent like a
storm about 40,000 years ago, and Neandertals quickly disappeared.
The switch happened so rapidly—as evidenced by the sudden arrival of
advanced stone tools and an explosion of cave painting and other art—that
anthropologists call it the "human revolution."
"What we have is a much patchier, very slow and gradual accumulation of
what we call modern human behavior in
"And that just simply means that culture developed in a slightly different
way in South Asia than it did in Western Europe." A dearth of fossils and
Petraglia and James's research even more valuable, writes Robin Dennell,
professor of archeology at the University of Sheffield, in a comment
accompanying the study.
The subcontinent has produced just one set of early Homo sapiens
fossils, found in a cave in Sri Lanka and dated to about 36,000 years ago.
Despite this, Petraglia hopes his analysis throws new light onto early
human history in
"We're trying to give a wake up call to anthropologists … saying that we
have to be looking at all parts of the world," he says.
"If we really want to tell the story of human evolution we've got to bring
all parts of the world into the story."
9. Global conspiracy
against Harvard U., Michael Witzel and his 46 co-signatories (November
The conspirators have
successfully confounded the issue by using difficult-to-comprehend,
intimidating technical terms related to DNA and genetic studies, thus
attempting to derail the ‘scholarly’ efforts of ‘international academics’
spearheaded by the Harvard University.
are now part of the conspiracy hatched by Hindus and faculty members at
several universities around the world. American Journal of Human
Genetics has also joined the conspiracy as reported briefly in earlier
New paper on Indian Y-chromosome variation
A new paper on Y-chromosome variation in India has become available as an
unedited preprint in the AJHG site. This is a huge study which
covered linguistic/caste groups from the entire country and used 69 binary
markers and 10 microsatellites to create a very thorough sampling of
Indian Y-chromosomal variation. It will take some time to digest all the
new information, plus the supplemental materials of the paper that remain
to be put online. I will blog more about this soon. In bullet form, some
findings of the paper which caught my attention:
R1a1's molecular variance is highest in NW India and its age is
R1a1's variance is high in tribals
The phylogeny of J2 has been refined and it is now split into two newly
discovered clades, called J2a and J2b.
J2 is almost entirely absent from tribals and is represented at a higher
frequency in upper castes than middle castes than lower castes.
High-resolution assessment of Y-chromosome binary haplogroup composition
was conducted on 728 Indian samples representing 36 populations, including
17 tribal populations, from six geographic regions and different social
and linguistic categories. They comprise (Austro-Asiatic) Ho, Lodha,
Santal, (Tibeto-Burman) Chakma, Jamatia, Mog, Mizo, Tripuri, (Dravidian)
Irula, Koya Dora, Kamar, Kota, Konda Reddy, Kurumba, Muria, Toda
(Indo-European) Halba. The 18 castes include (Dravidian) Iyer, Iyengar,
Ambalakarar, Vanniyar, Vellalar, Pallan and (Indo-European) Koknasth
Brahmin, Uttar Pradhesh Brahmin, West BengalBrahmin, Rajput, Agharia,
Gaud, Mahishya, Maratha, Bagdi, Chamar, Nav Buddha, Tanti. With exception
of the Koya Dora and Konda Reddy groups, these samples have been
previously described (Basu et al. 2003)…
The widespread geographic distribution of haplogroup R1a1-M17 across
Eurasia and the current absence of informative subdivisions defined by
binary markers leave its geographic origin uncertain. However the contour
map of R1a1-M17 variance shows the highest variance in the northwest
region of India (Figure 3).
In haplogroups R1a1 and R2 the associated mean microsatellite variance
is highest in tribes (Table 8), not castes. This is a clear
contradiction to what would be expected from an explanation involving a
model of recent occasional admixture.
Specifically, they could have actually arrived in southern India from
southwest Asian source region multiple times with some episodes being
considerably earlier than others.
Considerable archeological evidence exists regarding the presence of
Mesolithic peoples in India (Kennedy 2000), some of whom could have
entered the subcontinent from the northwest during the late Pleistocene
period. The high variance of R1a1 in India (Table 8), the spatial
frequency distribution of R1a1 microsatellite variance (Figure 3) clines
and expansion time (Table 7) support this view.
Clustering of R1a1 haplotypes:
The ages of the Y-microsatellite variation (Table 7) for R1a1 and R2 in
India suggest that the pre-historical context of these haplogroups will
likely be complex. A PC plot of R1a1-M17 Y-microsatellite data (Figure
4) shows several interesting features: (a) one tight population cluster
comprising S. Pakistan, Turkey, Greece, Oman and West Europe, (b) one
loose cluster comprising all the Indian tribal and caste populations, with
the tribal populations occupying an edge of this cluster, and (c) Central
Asia and Turkey occupy intermediate positions. The upper and lower
bounds of the divergence time between the two clusters is 12 kya and 8 kya,
respectively. The pattern of clustering does not support the model that
the primary source of the R1a1-M17 chromosomes in India was Central Asia
or the Indus valley via Indo-European speakers.
The spread of J2a:
Figure 2 demonstrates the eastward expansion of J2a-M410 to Iraq, Iran and
Central Asia coincident with painted pottery and ceramic figurines, well
documented in the Neolithic archeological record (Cauvin 2000). Near the
Indus valley, the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh beginning around 5000 BCE (Kenoyer
1998) displays the presence of these types of material culture correlated
with the spread J2a-M410 in Pakistan. While the association of agriculture
with J2a-M410 is recognized, it is not necessarily the only explanation
for its history. Despite an apparent exogenous frequency spread pattern
of hg J2a towards North and Central India from the west (Figure 2), it is
premature to attribute it to a simplistic demic expansion of early
agriculturalists and pastoralists from the
It reflects the overall net process of spread that may contain numerous as
yet unrevealed movements embedded within the general pattern. It may
also reflect a combination of elements of earlier prehistoric Holocene
epi-paleolithic peoples from the Middle East, subsequent Bronze Age
Harappans of uncertain provenance and succeeding Iron Age Indo-Aryans from
Central Asia (Kennedy 2000).
Further, the relative position of the Indian tribals (Fig. 4), the high
microsatellite variance among them (Table 8), the estimated age (14 kya)
of microsatellite variation within R1a1 (Table 7) and the variance peak in
the west (Fig. 3) are entirely inconsistent with a model of recent gene
flow from castes to tribes and a large genetic impact of the
Indo-Europeans on the autochthonous gene pool of India. Instead, our
overall inference is that an early Holocene expansion in NW
India (including the Indus) contributed R1a1-M17 chromosomes both to the
Central Asian and S Asian tribes prior to the arrival of the
J2a in upper caste Indians:
The J2 clade is nearly absent among Indian tribals,
except among Austro-Asiatic speaking tribals (11%). Among the
Austro-Asiatic tribals, the predominant J2b2 hg occurs only in the Lodha.
Haplogroup J2a-M410 is confined to upper caste Dravidian and Indo-European
speakers, with little occurrence in the middle and lower castes.
This absence of even modest admixture of J2a in south Indian tribes and
middle and lower castes is inconsistent with the L1 data. Overall,
therefore, our data provide overwhelming support to an Indian origin of
brands Aryan Invasion/Migration/Influx/Trickle-in Theory as a racist ploy
and a dangerous theory
The roots of this dangerous report by BBC internationalizing the
conspiracy are to be found in articles such as the ones by Sankrant Sanu
on Beliefnet.com: Sankrant Sanu, U.S. Hinduism Studies: A Question of
Aryan Invasion Theory
One of the most controversial ideas about Hindu history is the Aryan
This theory, originally devised by F. Max Muller in 1848, traces the
history of Hinduism to the invasion of
indigenous people by lighter skinned Aryans around 1500 BCE.
The theory was reinforced by other research over the next 120 years, and
became the accepted history of Hinduism, not only in the West but in
There is now ample evidence to show that Muller, and those who followed
him, were wrong.
Why is the theory no longer accepted?
Aryan invasion theory was based on archaeological, linguistic and
Later research has either discredited this evidence, or provided new
evidence that combined with the earlier evidence makes other explanations
Modern historians of the area no longer believe that such invasions had
such great influence on Indian history. It's now generally accepted that
Indian history shows a continuity of progress from the earliest times to
The changes brought to India by other cultures are not denied by modern
historians, but they are no longer thought to be a major ingredient in the
development of Hinduism.
Dangers of the theory
Aryan invasion theory denies the Indian origin of India's predominant
culture, but gives the credit for Indian culture to invaders from
It even teaches that some of the most revered books of Hindu scripture are
not actually Indian, and it devalues India's culture by portraying it as
less ancient than it actually is.
The theory was not just wrong, it included unacceptably racist ideas:
it suggested that
Indian culture was not a culture in its own right, but a synthesis of
elements from other cultures
it implied that
Hinduism was not an authentically Indian religion but the result of
it suggested that
Indian culture was static, and only changed under outside influences
it suggested that
the dark-skinned Dravidian people of the South of India had got their
faith from light-skinned Aryan invaders
it implied that
indigenous people were incapable of creatively developing their faith
it suggested that
indigenous peoples could only acquire new religious and cultural ideas
from other races, by invasion or other processes
it accepted that
race was a biologically based concept (rather than, at least in part, a
social construct) that provided a sensible way of ranking people in a
hierarchy, which provided a partial basis for the caste system
it provided a basis
for racism in the Imperial context by suggesting that the peoples of
Northern India were descended from invaders from Europe and so racially
closer to the British Raj
it gave a historical
precedent to justify the role and status of the British Raj, who could
argue that they were transforming India for the better in the same way
that the Aryans had done thousands of years earlier
it downgraded the
intellectual status of
and its people by giving a falsely late date to elements of Indian
science and culture
See Vishal Agarwal’s essay: What is Aryan Migration Theory (2001)
http://www.omilosmeleton.gr/english/agarwal.html See Kalyanaraman and
Kelkar, Proto-vedic Continuity Theory proposing that Indian languages are
of indigenous origin since the Veda were documented orally on the banks of
River Sarasvati, now discovered and being revived.
http://www.Hindunet.org/saraswati See Proto-vedic Continuity Theory at
The author is
Director, Sarasvati Research Centre. Email:
Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
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Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
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