By: B Shantanu
March 13, 2007
expressed here are author’s own and not of this website. Full disclaimer
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A few weeks ago, I came across a provocative comment by Richard Dawkins
which mentioned that polytheism in Hinduism is essentially “monotheism in
The comment prompted this post “Is Hinduism Monotheism in Disguise?” and
my research (summarized below) on this topic.
I came to the conclusion that while Hinduism may display some monotheistic
characteristics (or traces of monotheism), it is decidely not
monotheistic. In reality, to call Hinduism either monotheistic or
polytheistic is too simplistic, not to say erroneous.
The best way to characterize Hinduism is to describe it as an umbrella for
a broad range of beliefs including monotheism, monism, pantheism and pane
As the website Fast Facts on Hinduism states
“Hinduism is a decidedly theistic religion; the difficulty lies in
determining whether it is a polytheistic, pantheistic, or perhaps even
It should be noted at the outset, however, that this is chiefly a western
difficulty: the Indian mind is much more inclined to regard divergent
views as complementary rather than competing…and Hindus are not nearly as
concerned as are western thinkers with such labels and categories.”
The confusion about Hinduism at least partly stems from the fact that the
most popular and well known view of Hinduism in the West is the “Smarta”
view with its pantheon of Gods and Goddesses including Devi, Vishnu,
Ganesh, and Siva.”
The “Smarta” view is also the dominant form of thought in India today and
underpins the renowned liberalism (very rare in other belief systems) in
Please read on for a fuller explanation of what these various terms
(monotheism, pantheism, pane theism, atheism) mean and how Hinduism has
elements of all of them.
Richard Dawkins was not just being simplistic in his comment, he was also
Hinduism is NOT monotheism in disguise and we should strongly challenge
simplistic statements (such as the one above) whenever we come across them
to avoid misrepresentation of Hinduism’s core philosophy and beliefs.
Below are excerpts from various sources and references. They outline how
you find the various “–isms” in Hinduism (for a good list of definitions,
read this article, “Thank the Mahadevas, Hinduism is not a monotheistic
PANTHEISM and HINDUISM From Pantheism in Hinduism:
“It is generally asserted that Hindu religious texts were the oldest known
literature that contained the ideas of Pantheistic doctorine. In Hindu
theology, Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent
reality which is the Divine Ground of all things in this universe, and is
also the sum total of all that ever is, was, or ever shall be. This
pantheistic doctrine is traceable from some of the more ancient Upanishads
to later Advaita philosophy. All Mahāvākyas(Great Sayings) of the
Upanishads, in one way or another, seem to indicate the unity of the world
with the Brahman.
Pantheism is a key component of Advaita philosophy. Other subdivisions of
Vedanta do not strictly hold this tenet. For example, Dvaita school of
Madhva holds Brahman to be external personal God Vishnu, whereas the
theistic school of Ramanuja espouses Pane theism.”
PANE THEISM and HINDUISM From Pantheism
“Some interpretations of Hinduism can be seen as pane theistic…(Unlike)
pantheism, which identifies God with the total reality…pane theism holds
that God pervades the world, but is also beyond it. He is immanent and
transcendent, relative and Absolute.
Certain interpretations of the Gita and the Shri Rudram support this view.
For example, Lord Krishna's saying to Arjuna: "I continually support the
entire universe by a very small fraction of My divine power," has been
interpreted to support pane theism. (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 10, verse 42.)
The pane theistic view of Hinduism has been termed by some scholars as
"From: “Thank the Mahadevas, Hinduism is not a monotheistic religion”
This Spiritual-Reality obviously cannot have just one (mono) form
(theism). Therefore rather that a one dimensional or mono experience of
Spiritual-Reality, the spiritual/religious tradition (Dharma) of Hinduism
offers a full stereo range of expression of the eternal (Sanatana) flowing
(Sindhu/Hindu) grandeur of Spiritual-Reality.
In other words, Sanatana Dharma/Hinduism truly believes that
Spiritual-Reality flows through all things. Interesting to deny this
animism (which is often deemed "primitive"), is to deny the very meaning
of anima (soul).
POLYTHEISM and HINDUISM
From “Monotheism and Hindu Polytheism” by Aaron Schwartz
“…for a Hindu it is extremely difficult to realize the possibility of
existence of the only God whom he/she could worship or prayed to. It is
beyond his/her understanding because the Hindu perceives other gods, which
are not ‘his’/‘her’, as various aspects of the god he/she worships.
As a result, and it is necessary to underline this fact, polytheists, such
as adepts of Hinduism, are more tolerant in relation to other religions or
gods and they won’t proclaim Jihad (a sacred war) as Muslims sometimes do.
Consequently, prosecution or proselytization of adepts of other religions
can never exist in such a polytheistic environment as Hindu.”
From Hindu Views on Monotheism:
The “Smartha philosophy (that) defines the mainstream of Hinduism… allows
for the veneration of numberless deities, but on the understanding that
all of them are but manifestation of the ONE divine power.
That ultimate power is termed Brahman or Atman, and is believed to have no
specific form, name or attribute.
MONOTHEISM and HINDUISM From Are Hindus Monotheists?
“This question should perhaps be rephrased as "Are some Hindus
monotheists?", for certainly some are not. It has been claimed that some
sects within Hinduism are essentially monotheistic. There are two
objections to this view: the first, that Hindu monotheism, so-called, is,
on inspection, usually pantheism; the second objection is that when the
Hindu pantheist takes one of the Hindu gods as the origin of all other
beings, he is including other gods, both objections being illustrated in
"Arjuna saw the entire universe, divided in many ways, but standing as
(all in) One (and One in all) in the body of Krishna, the God of gods.
(11.13) Then Arjuna, filled with wonder and his hairs standing on end,
bowed his head to the Lord and prayed with folded hands. (11.14) Arjuna
said: O Lord, I see in Your body all the gods and multitude of beings, all
sages, celestial serpents, Lord Shiva as well as Lord Brahma seated on the
lotus. (11.15)" (Bhagavad Gita )
It might be argued that this is monotheism, and it might also be argued
that this is pantheism and polytheism.
From Hindu Views on Monotheism:
…Monotheism can be divided into different types on the basis of its
attitude towards polytheism: inclusive monotheism claims that all
polytheistic deities are just different names for the single monotheistic
God; Smartism, a denomination of Hinduism, follows this belief and holds
that God is one but has different aspects and can be called by different
names; …exclusive monotheism, on the other hand, claims that these deities
are false and distinct from the one God, either invented, demonic, or
simply incorrect, as Vaishnavism, a denomination of Hinduism, regards the
worship of anyone other than Vishnu. Exclusive monotheism is a well-known
tenet in the beliefs of the Abrahamic religions.
…However, even Vaisnavites, like other Hindus, have tolerance for other
beliefs because Lord Krishna, avatar of Vishnu, said so in the Gita. Few
views illustrate this view of tolerance: Krishna said: "Whatever deity or
form a devotee worships, I make his faith steady. However, their wishes
are only granted by Me." (Gita: 7:21-22)
Even the famous Rig-Vedic verse ("-ekam sad vipraa bahudhaa vadantya” i.e.
Truth is One, but sages call it by many names) illustrates this theme of
tolerance. This is in contrast with some beliefs of other religious
traditions, where one must believe in God being one aspect and to totally
reject or disdain other beliefs.”
ATHEISM and HINDUISM From: “Thank the Mahadevas, Hinduism is not a
“…Hinduism are the religious actions or acts (ism) of the Hindus. The
Hindu religion is vast in its spiritual/religious philosophy (darsanas),
mythology (puranas), doctrines (samhitas & shastras), rituals/practices (sadhanas),
ceremonies (samskaras) and Spirit Beings (MahaDevas).
From the perspective of Hinduism in discussing the various theological
isms, it is important to keep in mind that "Theism" denotes "God," and
very literally, there is no "God" in Hinduism.
Literally, in Hinduism, there is no "theology." In this sense, Hinduism is
Here is a list (non-exhaustive) of some of the REFERENCES I used:
Below are some DEFINITIONS (excerpted from various sources)
monotheism (mŏn"əthēĭzəm) [Gr.,=belief in one God], in religion, a belief
in one personal god. In practice, monotheistic religion tends to stress
the existence of one personal god that unifies the universe. The term is
applied particularly to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as well as
In theology, monotheism (Greek μόνος(monos) = single and θεός(theos) =
God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness
of God. In Western context, the concept of "monotheism" tends to be
dominated by the concept of the God of the Abrahamic religions …
Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all is of one
essence, principle, substance or energy and that there is one, universal,
unified set of laws underlying nature. (this is very similar to the
fundamental tenet of Sanatan Dharma – B Shantanu).
Note that Monism is often erroneously confused for pantheism or pane
Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( "pan" ) = all and θεός ( "theos" ) = God)
literally means "God is All" and "All is God". It is the view that
everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God;
From: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Panentheism#Panentheism_in_Hinduism
Pane theism (from Greek: πάν (‘pan’ ) = all, en = in, and theos = God;
"all-in-God") is the theological position that God is immanent within the
Universe, but also transcends it. It is distinguished from pantheism,
which holds that God is synonymous with the material universe. In pane
theism, God is viewed as creator and/or animating force behind the
universe, and the source of universal morality. The term is closely
associated with the Logos of Greek philosophy in the works of Herakleitos,
which pervades the cosmos and whereby all things were made.
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